Proceedings from the Fab 15 Research Stream (2019)

Fab15 Accepted Papers with Abstracts

Fab15 Accepted Papers with Abstracts

Session 1 - Tuesday - Education - room F44 at 14:00

Rajesh Nair, Jose Enrique Corpus and Willem Smit. THE RIPPLE EFFECT OF MAKER-TRAINING IN UNDERSERVED COMMUNITIES: A LONGITUDINAL IMPACT ANALYSIS FROM AN INNOVATION & ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING INTERVENTION ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Abstract: Entrepreneurship Education and Training (EET) is the most commonly used pedagogical approach used to increase the skills of aspiring entrepreneurs and those who are already entrepreneurs (Martin, McNally, & Kay, 2013). This research focuses on a different group, a broader and younger audience from underserved communities of which some are latent entrepreneurs who do not yet consider entrepreneurship as a future career path. The value of EET diminishes for latent entrepreneurs since EET curriculums are conceptually too far removed from their context, making the process of learning difficult (Lichtenstein & Lyons, 2001). The study, therefore, investigates the impact of Maker Training, as an alternative and more conceptually close course, on human capital assets, specifically a latent entrepreneur’s self-efficacy and how such programs encourage opportunity-driven entrepreneurial paths. In addition, the ripple effect (or spillover effect) of the training is observed, referring to the spreading of learnings from the workshop training to non-participants in training sites. The research questions are: What is the impact of maker training interventions on the entrepreneurial self-efficacy of its participants? How does the ripple effect sustain the impact of the maker training? We conduct a quantitative inquiry on the impact of EET interventions for participants of a maker training in 2014 in three different colleges in India. Pre- and post-tests are administered in each intervention (2014) to understand the immediate impact on its 130 participants. Four years later, the same participants partake in a tracer survey that measures similar constructs related to self-efficacy while closely examining social and network dynamics using the lens of the ripple effect.
Initial analyses revealed that the Maker Training positively impacted self-efficacy in maker skills, self-efficacy in entrepreneurial activities, and entrepreneurial intention. The study also illustrates the importance of post-training processes, such as the Ripple Effect of advocacy behaviors such as sharing, demonstrating, helping, and engaging which is linked to the nature of maker training. Data shows that participants who do not partake in advocacy behaviors exhibit less sustained learning impact. This research contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship development by building on sparse evidence that focuses on latent entrepreneurs and the impact of the ripple effect in sustaining outcomes over a period of time. Findings of this research are relevant for institutions with a strong interest to engage latent entrepreneurs, contributing to the acceleration of developing entrepreneurs.
Fathiyah Salem, Abdelfattah Bushnaf and Naila Elmangosh . the impact of fab lab Libya on women attitude toward technology
Abstract: Abstract
In this research we overlook our experiment of involving young teenager girls in technology field.
Fab Lab Libya has a accomplished this program in 2017/2018 targeting training students between 16-17 years old on basics of electronics and programming,through the project of "100 Young Engineer". The other program was "100 Young Programmer" that targeted the 19 years old high school graduates
Although the training program was free of charge the number of female participants was less than 16%, so we had to ask the red crescent associations ad scouts to fulfill the missing number from their participants , as the target of the fablab libya foundation value was to have a female 50% attenders .
With the reference of the Competition which took place at the end of the
program for best 6 hardware/software projects , females won 5 trophies out of the total . The judges were admire the level reached by the females and the ideas of their projects,which refers of how the female can lead in technology field.
this paper includes a statistical study of the views of the beneficiaries of the program and their views on the program and the impact of the program in changing their view of technology and STEM and the impact of the family and social in the selection of specialization.
These successful initiatives encourage young girls to explore the wonders of STEM in and outside of school.

Session 2 - Wednesday - Technology and Business - room F44 at 14:00

Walter Gonzales Arnao. Material Culture with Digital Manufacture in Peru.
Abstract: Material Culture in Peru has undergone changes in the last decade due to the incorporation of digital manufacturing processes. Creative Peruvians somehow want to transform their world, and their production is a reflection of their ideas, beliefs, values, etc. In this sense, the research analyzes concepts, human factors (entrepreneurs), experimental spaces and new ways of creating. This investigation is an approach to understand the current material culture as a system (which Juan Acha defines as production-distribution-consumption). The model of including digital manufacturing processes in handicrafts will be identified and we will reflect on where it could evolve.
José Lazarte. Jani Ylioja. Design of Automatic Cocoa Fermenter and Business Model in Fab Lab
Abstract: Smallholder farmers are responsible for roughly seventy percent of total global cocoa production (Clay 2004; Donald 2004) and most of this production occurs in areas of high biodiversity. The cocoa fermentation process ensures the quality of the end product. The container is the key device for a successful fermentation. In rural populations, the fermentation process is made with simple wooden devices that require a lot of manual labor with low production rates. Goals for this project are to have a product that covers the needs of the high quality fermentation process and has the qualities attractive to the user. As a result of reduction of manual labor and a raise in production rate, better income and life conditions of rural population dedicated to this economic activity are achieved.
In this project, we collected the experiences of the traditional procedures used by the cocoa farmers to design a prototype that improves the process of fermentation and produces premium cocoa beans to fulfill requirements of the market.
The design began using Design Thinking to realize the functional model of the prototype, in which we defined the requirements of the equipment, the mechanics and the characteristics of the materials for the process. The appropriate selection of the wood is essential to obtain good quality of the product. Temperature and pH of the ferment are monitored and the beans are aerated by programmed movements; this avoids manually removing the beans that often end up beaten and mistreated, reducing the quality of the product.
Based on information from the sensors and an electrical motor as actuator to control the movement an automated fermentation program was developed in our fab lab.
Need, Approach, Benefit, Competition (NABC) –type business modelling was executed parallel to the prototyping in order to guide the design to productive direction. We recognized the need for fermenting cocoa with less manual labor, our approach was to measure and automate the process, the benefit is improved quality product and our competition is traditional manual labor. Business canvas was used to explain our business model. The business model developed along the process clarified our objectives. Revenue- and cost streams were recognized and business was found viable.
We found our prototype effective and profitable on high quality cocoa production. Patent is pending.
Alfred Kobayashi. Business Collaboration Model between Fablabs and Corporates
Abstract: Companies today, seek different ways to co-create and collaborate with innovators, startups and fablabs. However, today the only model that companies use to work with FabLabs is linked to take them as suppliers. The Business Collaboration Model is an open innovation model that proposes collaboration options that allow generating profits for both the company and the fablab, where intellectual property can be recognized and protected and create a whole new business model. The study will show the case of collaboration between UPC and the iFurniture Fablab.
Adrien Rigobello. Connecting Terroirs
Abstract: The FabCity initiative aims at fostering the social resilience of urban areas by structuring networks of making and tinkering third-places such as fablabs, places that assess re-use of materials, craftsmen and urban agriculture for example. It has a strong political anchorage as it is taking a stand in the focus on terroirs (as the merge of territories and their cultures) and is unrolling actions in partnership with local public institutions.

Considering the tension of the global economic competition relying on nomadic competencies (such as coding, design, and digital fabrication to name a few) and sedentary workers (such as craftsmen, urban agriculture, energy, and food and water management as examples) as modelled by Giraud (2015), FabCity proposes a point of contact between new competencies of these nomadic workers, and sedentary economies anchored within a territory.

Parallely, we are witnessing an evolution of Design practices towards community building. The essence of Design as a mediation between practices is emerging again, alongside Beaux-Arts and Speculative developments of the discipline. This mediation is focusing on designing networks of significations, attachments, new traditions: terroirs. This practice distances itself from the usual artsy quality of Design, but rather is community-focused. The network proposition in FabCity, unfolded with a “Think Global, Act Local” strategy, is deeply anchored in its time. In being interested in communities rather than formal designs, its design space is widened and opens to Arts (Aerocene by Tomas Saraceno is a nice example), Engineering and Science. The FabCity is an open table, liberating interpretations over the notion of territory, that aims at being socially inclusive then and gather as many citizens as possible to “activate” them. FabCity acts like a car tuning club, but for territories’ resilience.

The emergence of the movement happens symmetrically between actor’s initiatives within and the leverage that the global aspect brings - especially in offering a political representation. Actors positions tend to be anchored on both physical and digital scapes; the very notion of Work is shifting, moving towards territory and the cloud, extended, relocated. The FabCity is challenging in very practical ways our daily activities. It is a liminal space, in between known territories.
Using a Semiologic Design methodology developed at thr34d5 medialab, and the Actor Network Theory (Callon, 1981), this paper presents a critical study of contemporary Works in the FabCity. The hypothesis is that actors and networks are mutually influencing each other, which widens the potential role of the FabCity movement to an initiator of technical objects as artefacts, and a contemporary platform for individuation. This paper aims at providing insights on the potential of the movement in the context of the emergence of FabCity Research Laboratories.

In creating a systemic understanding of the articulation between the FabCity network(s) and local actors we hope to further trigger agency for change, and valorize a situated cultural specification while sharing a common language for international collaborations.
Rajeev Roy and Sweekar Pawar. Social value as a driver of a culture of innovation
Abstract: Innovation cannot create social good but social good can be accelerated by innovation, provided that purpose is at the heart of innovation”
This provides a guiding insight in the modern era of competition and industrial revolution 4.0
Chhattisgarh is a state in India with a population of about 30 million and its economy has been driven by agriculture and mineral extractive industries. 36INC was established by the government of Chhattisgarh as a vehicle for promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation in the state. 36INC established a FABLAB in a mall right in the center of the capital city, Raipur.
Initially, the idea was to promote the adoption of making as a culture through training programs on technologies available at the FABLAB. At the next stage, participants were using the Fablab primarily for making products of aesthetic or curiosity value, like interesting decorations, figurines or jewelry.
It was soon decided to explore the possibility of using the 36INC Fablab to solve real problem out there. 36INC then made efforts to synergize cutting edge technology and traditional methods of life. One such outcome occurred at the FABLAB at 36INC. Two young entrepreneurs, from a small village of “Champa” had been working on collecting and processing resin from trees in the forest. The resin is processed to create paints, beautiful jewelry amongst others. However, the reliance on old, traditional and risky outdated methods and equipment constantly exposed them to occupational hazards.
These entrepreneurs contacted 36INC and showed us their rough designs for equipment up-gradation. 36INC, informed them of the fabrication capacities at their facility and connected them to students of Indian Institute of Technology. A synergy was created between the two groups and immediate work began on 3D modelling and creating digital prototypes. The FABLAB was able to provide facilities which helped in creating accurate, precise and efficient models, which satisfied the entrepreneurs. Now, these models are being translated to physical prototypes and will soon be enriching lives of hundreds of those employed in the sector.
Using FABLAB, 36INC has established that innovation can come from small and unforeseen contexts, bridging the gap between a common man and life altering innovations. Also, looking at solving problems really energizes the community of makers, rather than small projects which are primarily aesthetic in nature.